Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
Addiction is fundamentally a problem of drug or alcohol consumption. Scientific Faith Commitment to objective science guarantees that the foundational elements of the Official View are correct and certain. Medical Promise Medical research will soon find an effective treatment for addiction, which will probably be pharmacological.
Please note that none of these six foundational elements of the Official View were discovered by high-tech neuroscience. All are old ideas that were part of the moral and medical way perspectives on addiction of the 19th century, particularly those of the American temperance movement.
However, I will show that none of these proofs stands up to critical examination once the life histories of real addicted people as collected by social scientists and biographers, and the history of addiction in different societies are admitted to the discussion.
Although the Official View is proclaimed in tones of unimpeachable authority by its advocates, it changes continually. Numerous variations, some quite incompatible with others, have accumulated.
Variations The 2nd Foundational element of the Official View has both a strong and a weak variation. The strong version holds that "addictive drugs" quickly transform every drug user into an addict, overcoming his or her will power.
This idea may seem to be a relic of the 19th century, but it was still the conventional view of heroin when I was a young researcher in the s, and it re-appeared during the panics over crack cocaine in the s and methamphetamine around the turn of the 21st century.
Both drugs were said for a time to be instantly and universally addicting. These ridiculous assertions by mainstream media figures were not actively refuted in public statements of the Official View. The 2nd Foundational element takes a weaker form in the literature of today's Official View, which now acknowledges that the majority of drug users will not become addicted even if they use the most feared drugs over lengthy periods.
There is no way to confidently predict who will actually become addicted.
Therefore, everybody who uses drugs is at risk of becoming addicted. The drug itself is the active agent that transforms some — if not all — drug users into addicts, overcoming their normal ability to adapt to their world intelligently and morally.
In some variations of the Official View, the emphasis is shifted toward the person and away from the drug. When this is done, the image shifts from a drug-induced disease toward either a genetic or a moral disease.
In the genetic variation, a person's addiction is said to occur in large part because of a genetic predisposition inherited by some individuals. Hundreds of genes have been associated with addiction in a great variety of experimental studies. This moral version is not as vehement in today's Official View as it was in the 19th century.
However, Jim Orford has shown that the moral version is implicit in the practice of many types of conventional therapy, even when the explicit theory is not at all moralistic.
Although addicted people act immorally, they are not to be blamed because they have lost their will power after drugs rewired, hijacked, or took over their brains. If child abuse is the primary cause of the moral weakness that characterizes addiction, addicted people cannot be blamed.
It is, however, unclear whether the child abuse version is really part of the Official View because child abuse is only occasionally regarded as a predominant cause of addiction in NIDA publications,64 even though it has received powerful emphasis in the mass media.
There are growing signs that heroin use is on the upswing that heroin may be the Next Big Thing within the Official View again. For a time around World War I, immunological theories of addiction based on the idea that heroin and other drugs were "toxins" became dominant.
Psychoanalytic theories of unconscious causation flourished in that same era. The augmented dopamine supply was said to transform the brain so that the addicted person is unable to achieve the sense of well being associated with dopamine's normal release without using addictive drugs.
Dopamine is still said to play a prominent role in this causal complex. It seems likely that new variations will continue to proliferate as the older ones collapse under skeptical examination. Why the Official View is Untenable Although the current Official View receives unswerving support at the top of the power pyramid in the United States and in many other countries, it is untenable by normal rules of evidence and logic, once all the facts are taken into consideration.
There is only space here to briefly review some of the missing evidence, counter-evidence, and logical contradictions that currently bedevil it.
These are examined in greater detail in my book, The Globalization of Addiction and in more recent sources. Addiction is not primarily or essentially a problem of alcohol and drugs.
In fact, alcohol and drug addiction is only a corner of the vast, doleful tapestry of human addictions. This fact contradicts the 1st foundational element.(Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p.
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