Chloroplast and Thylakoid In photosynthetic bacteria, the proteins that gather light for photosynthesis are embedded in cell membranes.
More on Compost Tea I've decided to post this additional information in response to many inquiries I've had. You will find much of it redundant but better too much than too little, at least in this case.
In my opinion compost tea is poorly named. It is not something one drinks and it is not created by steeping in boiled water as is tea. Aerated compost tea making is an active process which extracts microorganisms breaks them loose from binding spots into aerated water and provides them with a food source foodstock which causes them to multiply.
A more apt name would be a microbe multiplier and the process is almost identical to a laboratory device known as a bioreactor.
Actually we have attempted a name shift by calling our new 12 gallon device an airlift [vortex] bioreactor. This, in my opinion, is a more descriptive term for what is going on but it looks like the term compost tea is going to stick.
If one is using quality compost or vermicompost hereinafter referred to as [vermi]compostan efficient ACT maker with sufficient aeration and the correct amount of foodstock, like black strap molasses, it is all about timing and to an extent temperature.
This is easily done by putting a bit of molasses, ascorbic acid or a bit of [vermi]compost in ahead of time, which neutralizes these oxidizers.
The fungi grows out rapidly as fungal hyphae and is often attached to pieces of organic matter free floating. The usual type of protozoa which we see, given an efficient brewer is flagellates, however sometimes there will also be naked amoebae.
The third type of protozoa, which we do not wish to see a ton of, are ciliates, as they can indicate the presence of anaerobic bacteria. The flagellate population can double every 2 hours so usually at the 36 hour period we have a sufficient diversity of microorganisms to call the brew finished and apply it to the soil and plants.
A good temperature range is usually 65 to 75 F but unless really cold the timing estimate is quite reliable. Why use compost tea? Many of these microorganisms will go dormant until called upon later to fulfill their purpose but many of them will grow and flourish, finding their station in the hierarchical positioning of microbes in a living soil.
Within a very diverse ACT there will be free living nitrogen fixers, anti-pathogens and yes a few of the anaerobic and facultative anaerobes which serve their positive role in a living soil. There is nothing wrong with using only [vermi]compost instead of ACT if you have that much. ACT just allows you to use less [vermi]compost and it accelerates the microbial process.
Recent research has revealed that archaea are commonly found in soil worldwide and have just as an important function in the microbial nutrient cycle as bacteria.
Some [vermi]compost will contain rotifers which are extracted into ACT. These cycle nutrients in similar fashion to protozoa and are a bonus if present.
Making ACT is not about putting in ingredients which directly benefit the plants. The foodstocks used are strictly to feed or benefit the microorganisms which in turn benefit the plants. When I jumped on the compost tea bandwagon years back I utilized the whole gambit of ingredients recommended by the current at that time supposed authorities.
These ingredients or foodstocks included, humic acid, kelp meal, black strap molasses, baby oatmeal oat flourfish hydrolysate, alfalfa meal, etc.
We used variations of these ingredients in our gallon ACT maker on our farm and microscopic observation showed success. The types used were mostly soft rock phosphate and pyrophyllite. It was not until I devised a method to test each foodstock independently that I began to change my tune and begin to go against the grain of the contemporary experts.
I observed that it actually suppresses microbial division and growth. This was confirmed by joint testing with Keep It Simple Inc. KIS in the Seattle area. We tested two of the most effective and popular brands.
I cannot say definitively that all brands of humic acid will have similar suppressive effects in a liquid ACT but it is enough for me to discontinue using it or recommending it as an ACT foodstock.
If too much is used the effects are suppressive. From this I garnered that it should be used very sparingly and one must be prepared to brew a little longer if using this foodstock. The story was that BSM feeds only bacteria.
This led to all sorts of misconceptions, even including ones made by USDA and Canada Agriculture scientists who declared that using molasses in ACT could lead to e-coli contamination.
It is utter nonsense. Besides the testing I have done and ratifying assays carried out by KIS, it is common knowledge amongst many mycologists like Paul Stamets that BSM grows out fungal hyphae just fine.
KIS has done more testing on this than I have.Extracts from this document Introduction. Importance of diffusion to living organisms Diffusion is basically the movement of chemical species (ions or molecules) .
1. INTRODUCTION - OVERVIEW - Biology as a science deals with the origin, history, process, and physical characteristics, of plants and animals: it includes botany, and zoology.
A study of biology includes the study of the chemical basis of living organisms, schwenkreis.com related sciences include microbiology and organic chemistry.
The Process of Osmosis and Its Importance to Living Organisms Essay Process of Diffusion and its importance in living organisms Diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions down a concentration gradient i.e.
from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
For a diffusion system to be efficient, it should have a large. Human Evolution Of Humans And Humans - In research, there was a site that had 13 dead in the same location. While being considered to be the plausible direct ancestors of present-day humans, Australopithecines were reasonably unintelligent.
Describe the characteristics of living organisms;. Nutrition, respiration, excretion, growth, irritability, movement, reproduction. 2. Compare the structures of an unspecialized plant and animal cell and selected microbes;.
Basic structure of unspecialized plant cell, animal cell and microbes. (a) Labeled diagrams of plant and animal cell. (b) Microbes include.
The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay. Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate.