Conclusion and Bibliography I. Introduction Wrongful convictions occur when innocent defendants are found guilty in criminal trials, or when defendants feel compelled to plead guilty to crimes they did not commit in order to avoid the death penalty or extremely long prison sentences. The term wrongful conviction can also refer to cases in which a jury erroneously finds a person with a good defense guilty e. This research paper deals with the first type of wrongful convictions, or wrong person convictions.
These brutal lawful ways include hanging from the neck, lethal injection, gas chambers, firing squad, electrocution, and guillotine. Death penalty is also called capital punishment Bohm, However, based on various reasons, innocent people can be charged with capital offences leading to death penalty.
The foregoing circumstances are the focus of this paper that seeks to explore the whole complex issue of death penalty for wrongful convictions. Justification of the Study. The fundamental principle of the United State Constitution on justice indicates that punishment should be proportionate to the crime committed.
It is therefore imperative to explore the factors that render one vulnerable to death penalty for wrongful convictions and find possible remedies for this rather unfortunate state.
Many innocent offenders who have been executed or waiting for their execution have been proved innocent by DNA tests and results Koch et al. Execution of the innocent has attracted a lot of controversial and heated debate in the U.
S, with many Congressmen supporting its abolition. Religious movement and anti-death penalty movements are also pushing the government to abolish it. The controversies and issues surrounding death penalty for wrongful conviction thus make it a ripe field for further study.
What Crimes Warrant Death Penalty? The death penalty crimes vary from one state to another. Murder is the unlawful act of depriving someone the right to life.
Treason is the crime that covers extreme acts against the state. Espionage is the illegal act of obtaining confidential information from the information holder country. Such sexual offenses include rape, adultery, sodomy, and incest.
In most Islamic Nations, crimes like apostasy are punished by death penalty. In China, and many other nations, drug trafficking and human trafficking may also be punished by execution Koch et al.
Poor defendants are most likely to suffer from wrongful conviction. This is partly because poor defendants find it difficult to hire experienced and competent lawyers to represent their interests and defend their rights in court.
This category of suspects often fails to convince judges appropriately in order for the judgments to be made fairly. On the other hand, rich defendants might use their resources to influence the court ruling on their favor through bribes Koch et al.
Crowded courts with many pending cases give a leeway for diversion of justice. Defendants whose cases are lying in these courts are likely to face wrongful convictions. This is because judges are likely to rush over the cases rather than doing thorough research and critically investigating the evidences that the prosecutors present to the court Koch et al.
Wrongful convictions have been associated with race. In a study conducted by Koch et al.Women have, historically, not been subject to the death penalty at the same rates as men.
From the first woman executed in the U.S., Jane Champion, who was hanged in James City, Virginia in , to the present, women have constituted only about 3% of U.S.
executions. Wrongful convictions occur when innocent defendants are found guilty in criminal trials, or when defendants feel compelled to plead guilty to crimes they did not commit in order to avoid the death penalty or extremely long prison sentences.
Wrongful convictions are a very real and disturbing product of our legal system. This is no accident. Rather, it is the result of inherent flaws in an imperfect system . J. L.
Women have, historically, not been subject to the death penalty at the same rates as men. From the first woman executed in the U.S., Jane Champion, who was hanged in James City, Virginia in , to the present, women have constituted only about 3% of U.S. executions. Timeline. Eighteenth Century B.C. -first established death penalty laws. Eleventh Century A.D.-William the Conqueror will not allow persons to be hanged except in cases of murder. Captain George Kendall becomes the first recorded execution in the new colonies.. - Jane Champion becomes the first woman executed in the new colonies.. -Cesare Beccaria's essay, On Crimes and. 38 rows · The Most Common Causes of Wrongful Death Penalty Convictions: Official Misconduct and Perjury or False Accusation. Many factors contribute to wrongful convictions, and .
Mackie - Ethics~ Inventing Right and Wrong (, ) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. To calculate the rate of wrongful convictions, the new study applied an analytical framework from the world of medical statistics to a set of data comprising all prisoners sentenced to death.
Death Penalty Worldwide’s analysis of innocence and wrongful convictions in the context of capital punishment, with bibliographical references and case law - part of a series of International Legal Issues.