These views are his own. Many do oppose research cloning because of deeply held beliefs that destroying a human embryo at any stage violates the sanctity of human life.
So when did I, or any other gay male, transform into a shopping expert? The assumption that my subjectivity as a gay individual is tied not only to consumption, but knowing how to properly consume, raises questions around the relationship between consumer capitalism and homosexuality.
Why are contemporary gay identities associated with consumption? What has contributed to the formation and maintenance of this relationship? To explore these questions, I briefly examine several ways gay have utilized goods in commercial and political life to address the structuring role of consumer capitalism in the production of modern, stylized gay identities.
I argue that the collective social, cultural, and political practices of gays in the United States are dialectically linked to the creation of a consumer archetype utilized by marketing and mass media to encourage spending.
Although there are a number of approaches that view consumption critically Frank, ; Schor ; Ritzer, ; many scholars view consumption as a positive force that allows individuals to actively engage and shape social life Lipovetsky, ; Miller, ; Kates, ; ; Campbell, This view of consumption allows for an analysis of various processes and meanings that consumers give to their everyday experiences.
Taking a critical orientation to theorizing the individual some scholars reject the notion that consumers are sovereign self-motivated actors. What emerges from this critical perspective is an understanding of the operation of consumer capitalism as a structuring force within the social world.
For Gabriel and Langconsumers can be conceptualized in various ways including the victim, citizen, rebel, activist, identity seeker or chooser.
This perspective not only demonstrates the multiplicity of consumers in the market but also how consumption is a social practice which, linked to economic exchange, influences social relations.
Here consumers cannot be understood as only one variation or type, but as socially situated individuals who take on multiple identities. Conceptualizing the gay subject as a consumer is important because the modern standardization of gay identities remains bound to the historical practices of gays as consumers.
My decision to focus on male homosexuality is an effort to critique the processes that keep differences within the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender GLBT community invisible. Drawing from sociological theories of consumption, I theorize the gay subject as a connoisseur of consumption.
Fashionable consumption should not be thought of as limited to privileged groups or classes, but as exclusive to any particular social, cultural, or economic demographic. As a connoisseur of consumption, the gay subject is a product of various historical processes in consumer capitalism.
Its commoditized identity is the result of an increasing stylistic homogenization and rational standardization that is bound to consumption in an attempt to produce an authentic form of gayness, or any other social identity, when none exists.
As an object of consumption the connoisseur of consumption is not only consumed, but also guides consumers on issues pertaining to proper spending.
While a full analysis of the ways gays have historically used consumer goods is beyond the scope of this essay, I briefly highlight several historical examples to show how the internal use of consumer goods by gays for identification grew to include an outward cultural expression that coincided with the use of consumption as a tool for political change.
With this change, migration to large cities such as New York, Chicago, and San Francisco allowed for the development of stable centers of gay life where acceptable forms of cultural expression could develop. By this reasoning, capitalism in the United States made possible both gay identity and the beginning of a community whose engagement in commercial life served as a means of identification, cultural expression, and political activity.
In the early twentieth century, the use of consumer goods as a form of identification by homosexuals became central to the advancement of the subculture. While other minorities are easily distinguishable due to physical characteristics, the increasing homosexual minority developed methods of identification utilizing fashion as a means of remaining unnoticeable to outsiders.
Similarly, many gay GIs during WW II utilized consumer goods in variety shows that headlined them as female impersonators to cope with constant suspicion around their sexuality.
In contrast to the use of red-ties during the s to attract sexual partners, the transformation of fashion and language by gays in the military allowed for forms of identification that centered upon community and relationships.
Thus, consumer goods were not only used as a means of communication, but also as a cultural code to evade hostile political, legal and religious social forces that restricted the public declaration of homosexuality.
Turing to how gays utilize consumer goods a form of cultural expression, the Stonewall Riots, which came as a result of police raids on gay bars, spawned what many scholars deem the start of the modern gay civil rights movement.
Paralleling this shift, gays began to use consumer goods and consumption as a form of outward public expression through protest, resistance, and visibility. Using fashion as form of cultural expression, drag functioned as a type of political protest to gender and sexual norms.
In practice gays created and transformed commodities, and the meanings associated with them, into palatable forms of cultural and political expression, resistance, and visibility. Paying particular attention to the growing homosexual minority as consumers, advertisers also began to imagine many as fashionable, young, educated, childless, and affluent men Badgett, While these discourses began to focus on effeminate and flamboyant characteristics to depict gay consumers, gay liberation during this time also produced an identity that for some men could only be characterized as hypermasculine.
Masculine forms of dress, physique, and recreational activities adopted by many gay males demonstrated how a wide-range use of consumer goods, fashion, and consumption by various members of the gay community provided a broad basis for their eventual representation as connoisseurs of consumption.In part I of this essay, I considered the meaning of privacy in organic society.
In the digital age privacy is inverted and is commoditised like everything else, which requires that the elements of the self are fragmented and digitised. The NEFs Clone Town Britain Survey II was used, and is designed to determine whether a town has become a "clone town".
A figure of "cloneliness" can be produced by using the formula produced by the NEF shown in figure 16 and the clone town rating scale shown in figure The strengths & weaknesses of Star Wars Ep.
III: Revenge of the Sith (schwenkreis.comlm) submitted 2 years ago * by LostInTheMovies With Star Wars back in the news, it seems like every published piece has accepted the conventional wisdom that the prequels are absolute disasters and that the Star Wars franchise is better off out of its creator's hands.
century botany, designating plant grafts. “Clone” eventually came to be used for micro-organisms as well. Then, by the s, the word came to designate a viable human or animal generated from a single parent. Over the last few years, cloning has come to mean any artificial, identical genetic copy of an existing life form.
David Stutz wrote an intriguing essay about the history of global commodities (i.e., sugar, oil, cotton, etc.) and the emerging "commodification" of software. Software, he points out is constantly changing, and [b]y definition, something that changes constantly cannot be a commodity; the commodity.
The entire argument is the “Production and Commodification Objection” Last paragraph of Page 5 of 6 true that the commodification of procreation exists independently of cloning, if cloning were to be introduced it would so completely revolutionize the process, that it .